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Davis Highlands tundra

Rugged topography distinguishes this ecoregion from the High Arctic Tundra ecoregion [NA1110].

This ecoregion has a high arctic and oceanic high arctic ecoclimate. A humid, extremely cold climate is marked by very short, cold summers. Mean annual temperature is -11.5°C. Mean summer temperature is 1°C, and mean winter temperature is -23°C. Mean annual precipitation is 200-400 mm overall, with 400-600 mm centering around the Cumberland Peninsula (ESWG 1995).

This ecoregion is comprised of the Baffin Mountains, an elevated belt of deeply dissected crystalline rocks that extend along the northeastern flank if Baffin and Bylot Islands. Ice-capped mountains reach 1525-2135 m asl. Sloping gently westward, the ecoregion’s general aspect is one of a broad, gently warped, old erosion surface etched by erosion along joint systems and zones of weakness. Long arms of the sea penetrate as glacier-filled sounds or fjords; some cut through highlands to Baffin upland to the east. The ecoregion is underlain by deep, continuous permafrost with low ice content. Bare bedrock is common (ESWG 1995).

  • Scientific Code
    (NA1109)
  • Ecoregion Category
    Nearctic
  • Size
    33,900 square miles
  • Status
    Relatively Stable/Intact
  • Habitats

Description
Biological Distinctiveness
The dominant vegetation is a discontinuous cover of mosses, lichens, and cold-hardy vascular plants such as sedge (Carex spp.) and cotton grass (Eriophorum spp.).

Characteristic wildlife include arctic hare (Lepus acticus), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), and caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are common in coastal areas. Representative birds include king eider (Somateria spectabilis), rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), plover (Charadrius spp. and Pluvialis spp.), hoary redpoll (Carduelis hornemanni) and snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis). Marine mammals include walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), seal (Phocidae) and a variety of whales (Cetacea) (ESWG 1995).

Among the many ecologically significant features this ecoregion includes are: snow goose (Chen caerulescens) nesting colonies (Bylot Island) - one of the largest colonies globally; and nesting cliffs at Bylot Island for major colonies of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and black-legged kittiwakes (Riss tridactyla). A large proportion of polar bears in the Northwest Territories/Greenland shared population is found in this area in the summer along the coast, and denning and maternal denning sites are found inland. Caribou calving sites (relatively undescribed) are found in higher elevations and seasonal migration to summer feeding in areas in valleys.

Conservation Status

Habitat Loss and Degradation
At least 98 percent of this ecoregion is considered to remain intact. Very small areas of habitat loss are attributed to coastal communities and terrain disturbance in their immediate vicinities.

Remaining Blocks of Intact Habitat
The ecoregion can be considered as intact.

Degree of Fragmentation
The region is not fragmented.

Degree of Protection

•Part of Auyuittuq National Park - Northwest Territories - 21,471.1 km2
•Bylot Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary (not as highly protected) - Northwest Territories - 259 km2
Types and Severity of Threats
Threats are relatively minor. One is atmospheric fallout, resulting in heavy metal and pesticide pollution. There is a risk of oil spills in coastal areas. Ecotourism will need to be carefully managed in order that nesting bird colonies, caribou calving grounds and other sensitive wildlife species are not disturbed. With increased access, over-hunting of caribou is a possibility.

Suite of Priority Activities to Enhance Biodiversity Conservation

•Complete designation of North Baffin Island National Park.
•Develop management plans and set specific recommendations to protect caribou calving sites.
Conservation Partners

•Canadian Arctic Resources Committee
•Ecology North
•Nunavut Wildlife Management Board
•World Wildlife Fund Canada
Relationship to other classification schemes
The Baffin Mountains (TEC 5) extend along the Davis Highlands Tundra (ESWG 1995).

Prepared by: A. Gunn, S. Oosenbrug, C. O’Brien, K. Kavanagh, M. Sims, G. Mann.

 

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