Location and General Description
The Iberian mountain conifer and broadleaf mixed forests ecoregion spreads geographically all along the main central (Gredos, 2592 m; Guadarrama, 2,430 m; Urbion, 2,259 m) and eastern (Gúdar, 2019 m; Javalambre, 2020 m; Cazorla, 2,107 m; Sierra Nevada, 3,482; Baza, 2,271 m) mountain ranges of Spain. Climatically, the ecoregion is characterized by an average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm, but in certain high altitudes levels can exceed 1,500 mm. Snow falls frequently during winter and minimum average temperatures are below freezing (-5 to 0 º C). From the geological point of view, the Iberian mountain ranges belong to the Alpine orogenic system, being composed of a very complex lithological composition. Mesozoic dolomite and limestone predominate in the eastern massifs; other important substrates are sandstone, marl, and conglomerates. The Central mountain ranges have a predominance of crystallibe metamorphic substrates, mainly granite, quartzite, and schist. The landform is distinguished by smooth elevations and also an abundance of deep canyons and other karstic landscapes in the calcareous massifs.
The wide altitudinal range of this ecoregion results in two major forest zones: a conifer zone, typical of higher elevations (average altitudinal range of 1,200-2,500 m), and a mixed broadleaf zone, which occurs at medium elevations and lowlands.
The dominant canopy tree species of the mountain conifer forests are the endemic Salzmann pine (Pinus nigra salzmannii), Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), and maritime pine (P. pinaster). Relict stands of an Alpine pine species (Pinus uncinata) occur in two small areas of the eastern calcareous mountain massifs (Gúdar Mts and Urbión Mts). Juniper woodlands (Juniperus thurifera) are widespread in the high plateaus that surround the central and eastern calcareous mountains.
Broadleaf mixed pine and oak forests dominate at medium and low altitudes in deep soil and humid slopes, valleys, and canyons. This mixed forest type is characterized by a rich association of tree, shrub, and herbaceous species including Quercus faginea, Q. pyrenaica, Ulmus glabra, Fraxinus angustifolia, Tilia spp., Sorbus spp., and Acer spp. Canyons host important relict species such as Taxus baccata, Tilia platyphyllos, and Populus tremula. Evergreen oaks, mainly Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) are abundant in dry and rocky south-facing slopes, from the broadleaf mixed forest zone to the mountain conifer altitudinal zone.
The endemism rate of this ecoregion varies from about 15-20% in the central mountain ranges (Gredos, Guadarrama, Gúdar, Javalambre), to more than 40% in the summits of the south-eastern Baetic and Sub-Baetic mountains (Sierra Nevada, Baza, Cazorla). These southeastern mountains are home to more than 3,000 vascular plant species, or about half of the flora of Spain, and including about half of the country’s endemic plants. Therefore, these mountain ranges constitute the richest center of endemic species in Europe.
The ecoregion hosts a very high faunal diversity, mainly in regard to birds. More than 150 species have been recorded for certain mountain ranges, including a good number of endangered large birds such as Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca adalberti) and golden eagle (A. chrysaetos), black vulture (Aegypius monachus), griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), black-shouldered kite (Elanus caeruleus), black stork (Ciconia nigra), and honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus).
Endangered large mammals are represented by the endemic Gredos ibex (Capra pyrenaica victoriae) and wolf (Canis lupus). Red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are widely distributed in the ecoregion. Small mammals also include a number of endemic subspecies such as Microtus nivalis abulensis.
An important number of endemic amphibian and reptile species appear in high mountain lakes, meadows, and rocky areas including Lacerta monticola cyreni, Salamandra salamandra almanzorensis, and Bufo bufo gredosicola.
Butterflies (Lepidoptera) are also a highly diverse taxonomic group in this ecoregion. Certain mountain massifs (i.e. Gredos and Guadarrama) host more than 130 species, which represents one forth of the total number of European species and half of the Spanish butterfly species.
According to historical data, the ecoregion mountain ranges had a very low human population, and tall forests prevailed widely throughout until the arrival of Arabs in the eighth century. Rapid landscape changes happened during medieval times mainly due to livestock grazing and, in the case of Sierra Nevada, due to agriculture. Huge mountain slopes were completely transformed into terrace cropland during this time. By the end of the nineteenth century, large mountain areas were covered completely by grassland and secondary scrub vegetation. In other cases, barren slopes showed an irreversible desertification process. Nevertheless, in 1860 pristine pine forests still remained in the central mountain ranges (Cuenca Mts.). Overly intense logging operations for railway construction and ship-building provoked the degradation of extensive forest stands and the disappearance of the last pristine stands.
Types and Severity of Threats
Current human impact is still high in this ecoregion. Mountain tourism, ski facilities, and road construction are strongly degrading large mountain forest ecosystems. Due to the soil instability of the steep mountain slopes, road construction and clear-cutting operations have provoked serious landslides. Other primary threats include forest fires, overly intense and inadequately managed logging operations, and overgrazing and unsustainable plant-collecting.
Degree of Protection
Country Area Name
& Creation Date
PA size (Ha)
& IUCN Cat.
Major Forest Types
Spain Sierra Nevada 140,200 National Park
Spain Sierra de Baza (1989) 52,337 Natural Park
Spain Sierra de Castril (1989) 12,265 Natural Park
Spain Sierra Mágina (1989) 19,900 Natural Park
Spain Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas (1989) 214,000 Natural Park
Spain Moncayo (1978) 1,389 Natural Park
Justification of Ecoregion Delineation
It includes the eastern units of Iberian supra- and meso-Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica as well as the southeastern units of the supra-Mediterranean and relict types of Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests and scrub (with small inclusions of subalpine and oro-Mediterranean vegetation and Iberian supra- and meso-Mediterranean thermophilous mixed deciduous broad-leaved forests) from Bohn et al. 2000.
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Prepared by: Pedro Regato
Reviewed by: In process